It’s no secret that investing can be complicated. So anytime it can be made easier, folks get pretty excited. That’s why there’s been a lot of hype about M1 Finance – a completely free investing robo-advisor brokerage hybrid. The truth is, brokerage house websites are clunky, difficult to navigate and use, and move slowly with adding new features. Many startups have tried to solve the clunky interface experience; however, M1 Finance is the first company to ask – what would it look like if it were perfect? Then actually create the answer.
M1 Finance Review Cheat Sheet
- Account Types
- Investment Products
- Mobile App
- Customer Service
Whether you are brand new to investing, or are looking for a simple and intuitive way to open a low-cost index fund, M1 Finance is great for those on the path to FI. M1 makes investing in both taxable and tax-advantaged accounts like IRAs and Roth IRAs quick, simple, easy, and free.
M1 was built with powerful automation capabilities so you can take a set-it-and-forget-it approach to investing, helping you to build to your FI number.
- Commission-free investing
- Fractional shares
- Revolutionary pie feature
- Auto-invest feature
- Margin loan and margin borrow (but avoid unless necessary)
- Dynamic rebalancing
- Tax efficiency
- Dividend Dashboard
- M1 Finance Signup Bonus
- Limited trading windows
- No automatic Tax Loss Harvesting
- Limited order options
Table Of Contents
- What is M1 Finance?
- Who Should Use M1 Finance?
- Why M1 Finance
- Pros of M1 Finance
- Cons of M1 Finance
- How to Get Started with M1 Finance
- Investing with M1 Finance
- M1 Borrow
- M1 Checking Account
- How Does M1 Finance Make Money?
- M1 Finance Alternatives
- Is My Money Safe with M1 Finance?
M1 Finance was founded out of pure frustration by Brian Barnes. He (and many others) believe most financial services are not acting with the investor's best interest at heart, even worse they are unnecessarily complicated and cumbersome. Brian researched the investment platforms that were out there but couldn't find what he was looking for.
What I was trying to do seemed relatively basic. I wanted to be able to pick my investments, and have recurring deposits automatically added to those allocations. I hated the idea of idle cash, so I wanted a platform that put all my dollars to work. Unfortunately, the seemingly simple solution just didn’t exist.
So he created it–a totally free (more on that later), robo-advisor brokerage that lets investors manage their money through automated investing.
Why is this so revolutionary? Well, let’s dive into the details of M1 Finance to find out.
People on the path to financial independence are long term buy and hold investors. They want a platform that was created with their investing mentality in mind. This is just that platform.
M1 Finance is great for both new and seasoned investors. You can started with any amount, and can put that towards one of our favorite low-cost index funds.
MI Finance is also perfect for people that want to be able to dollar cost average fractional shares and put their wealth-building on autopilot.
If you hate assets under management fees, and you want to access Vanguard Funds (without having to log on the Vanguard platform or paying hefty commissions), M1 Finance is for you. M1 Finance allows new investors to get started in Vanguard Total Stock Market Exchange Traded Fund (VTI) for as little as they want to test the waters. With just a $100 minimum, getting started is easy.
Once a new investor gets started, the chances of them continuing to invest across their life are very high. They begin building a habit that will help them save and invest even more when they make more money.
For more seasoned investors, M1 Finance gives the opportunity for a more sophisticated tilt to the Simple Path to Wealth by layering on more value and small-cap stocks.
They can follow the recommended investment portfolios of experts like Paul Merriman, or further customize it based on their own research. So, it’s still the Simple Path to Wealth, but with a smidge of complexity to increase the likelihood of maximizing returns.
Who Should Not Use M1 Finance?
If you are a day trader investor you will not enjoy M1 Finance. You won't be able to get in and out of the market as quickly as you want.
Check out our video explaining why we at ChooseFI love M1 Finance.
To summarize the video, there are reasons for both beginning investors and advanced investors to love M1 Finance.
- M1 requires no minimum balance to start investing with them.
- You can create your account in five minutes or less. (I have tested this to make sure!)
- You can purchase ETFs with no fees or commissions.
- You can buy fractional shares of VTI, something not allowed on other platforms.
- Everything is cap weighted.
- M1 doesn't charge management fees or commissions so you can take greater advantage of compounding returns over time.
- M1 has built rebalancing into the platform. You tell the system how much of each percentage of each asset class you want to hold, and it automatically maintains them throughout the year.
- It can act as a substitute for HELOC. As your money is saved, you don't need as much cash. You can borrow up to 30% of your invested assets with them. You're not leaving the market, selling any of your assets, or creating any kind of a taxable event. You're just taking advantage of your assets if you need them in an emergency.
- If you do want to take advantage of capital gains harvesting, you can optimize your investments with M1 to do that.
- The allocation strategy that they implement when securities are sold helps to reduce the amount of taxes that you owe. They do this by taking your portfolio targets into consideration to determine which securities to sell.
- M1 can help you dollar-cost average your investments. If you have a fixed amount that you'd like to invest in your M1Finance IRA, this investment strategy would allow you to split up those contributions. You would invest the amounts at different intervals, so you are always getting different prices. The prices of your orders will be averaged so you can hopefully lower your share cost.
First things first, when you open up m1finance.com, you’ll notice how nicely designed and intuitive the site is – it’s just beautiful to look at. The aesthetics, however, are just the beginning of the many notable pros on our list, including:
- Commission-free investing
- Fractional shares
- Revolutionary pie feature
- Auto-invest feature
- Margin loan and margin borrow
- Dynamic rebalancing
- Tax efficiency
- Dividend Dashboard
- M1 Finance Signup Bonus
- M1 Finance Referral Bonus
Commission Free Investing
M1 Finance is a free investing platform. There's no cost for each transaction.
The ability to invest fractional shares means that you can get all your money working all the time. You don't need to wait until you have enough to purchase a full share of stock to invest. You can buy right up the amount you have at any point.
M1 Finance Pies
It's hard to overstate how powerful the Pie feature is.
The deceptively simple pie structure had never seen before in the brokerage world. I say deceptively simple because the ability to embed a pie within a pie allows you to layer complexity and to maintain these incredibly complex portfolios entirely on autopilot. M1 Finance does this while preserving your ability to visualize your plan and map your progress to your goals.
Do you want to follow your investing heroes? It's possible to track and replicate other people's pies. So, if you want to replicate a Boglehead 3-fund strategy or Paul Merriman Buy & Hold or JL Collins Simple Path. You can replicate that for part or all your holdings in less than a minute.
What makes auto-invest so powerful is that it builds on the M1 Pie feature. Auto Invest is an optional feature you can turn on. If you choose to turn on the auto-invest functionality, you can be confident that your transfers are being invested in a way that maintains your desired asset allocation no matter how complex.
Automatic Investing Schedule
We have talked about the power of Dollar-Cost Averaging in the past. This method of investing ensures that you always get mathematically better than the average price per share. It allows you to put wealth building on autopilot. As with everything in life, it's so easy to do nothing. Inaction is too expensive, and it can be painful to have to decide to invest each paycheck. You can feel the money burning a hole in your pocket, and you keep thinking about how this is money that you could be spending.
Anytime you can get your silly lizard brain out of the way and just have it work for you, you're going to wind up in a better place. M1 Finance lets you make one decision and be confident that the results will take care of themselves. While you can always make changes and increase or decrease the amount over time, it's essential to set it up.
Let's start investing in our goals. You can always increase it. You can still make extra, one-time investments, but in your worst-case scenario, you should intend to invest at least 500 bucks a month.
Margin Loan and Margin Borrow
A Margin loan is a loan against your Portfolio's value, and should be avoided if the intent is to borrow money to invest in the market. It may be something to consider if you use it judiciously, like to pay down a loan with a much higher interest rate.
M1 Finance allows you to borrow up to 35% of your portfolio value at a low, low-interest rate – as low as 2%. You can access these funds in less than 10 seconds.
The M1 Borrow interest rate is variable and is tracked to the Federal Funds Rate. Currently, that rate ranges from 3.5% down to as low as 2%.
I love this feature, and I use it, But with some caveats. M1 borrow is an excellent alternative paying for an expensive whole life insurance policy for years so that one day you will be able to borrow against it or even a HELOC. It is also a reasonable solution for consolidating or paying off high-interest debt like a car loan or credit card debt.
Again, I do not recommend that you invest on margin, which quickly turns ‘investing' into gambling. It allows aggressive traders to buy more stock than they could otherwise afford. It's possible to magnify your returns, but it's also possible that you can amplify your losses and lose even more than you invest. (don't do it)
I think of it as a much more optimized HELOC (Home Equity Line of Credit). I prefer it for several reasons.
Since your borrowing capacity is capped at 35% of portfolio value, it incentivizes you to save/invest more.
The interest rates are 2-3% more competitive than a HELOC.
It's available to Renters as well as Homeowners
M1 Finance maintains your Pie Allocation by adding new funds to underweighted assets. You can also rebalance on-demand with one button click.
Selling funds, at some point, is inevitable. Either because you are cashing out some shares, rebalancing, or trading out of one investment into another.
But how do you do that in the most tax-advantaged way?
M1 Finance has your back. The platform has a built-in tax minimization strategy that ensures you pay the smallest amount of tax when selling parts of your portfolio.
When you request a withdrawal from your portfolio, M1's algorithm determines which Stocks or Parts of Pie to sell based on your portfolio targets. With those considerations in mind, M1 sells in this order.
- Losses that offset future gains
- Lots that result in long-term gains
- Lots that result in short-term gains
You will still owe taxes on interest and dividends, but you can be confident that your capital gains were ‘realized' in the most tax-efficient manner possible. a feature like this a huge deal and is removing hours of decision making saving you time and improving your outcome
Watching your money make money for you is one of the most powerful and behavior reinforcing steps you can make on the path to Financial Independence, but most brokerage dashboards do it poorly. M1 Finance immediately breaks out your total return and your dividend payments over a period that you can determine. (1 Day, 1 Month, All Time, Etc.) It presents this data in a very compelling way.
What is Total Return
The total return is both similar and different to compound interest. When you own shares of a company, you're expecting your money to make money for you, but your total return is comprised of two factors: the growth of the company and dividend payments.
Is M1 Finance Good for Dividend Investors
Dividend investors put a higher emphasis on the dividends they can expect and much less emphasis on growth because they are focused primarily on cash flow. If this is your mentality, you will appreciate how easy M1 Finance makes it to see this information.
M1 Finance Signup Bonus
M1 Finance also offers a transfer bonus when you are rolling over a 401K. Rates and offerings vary, so be sure to check and see what the current offer is.
While M1 is truly a great service, it’s not without its issues. There are a few M1 Finance cons of note that were experienced. Two of them are solvable and one of them is just unfortunate – but it's not a deal-breaker.
• Limited trading windows
• No automatic Tax Loss Harvesting
• Limit order
Limited Trading Windows
M1 Users have their orders placed at [10:00] AM EST Mon-Friday, The Stock Market opens at [9:30] AM EST, so as long as you have your Buy or Sell Order submitted before [10:00] AM, you will be in the queue. Depending on the Trade Volume that day, you might see your order executed anywhere from [10:15] out to [11:30] AM.
In my opinion, this is a reasonable tradeoff considering you are getting this transaction for FREE. But if you are a day trader trying to bob and weave in and out of the market, you will find it frustrating. If you are a long term, buy and hold investor and are used to purchasing Index Mutual Funds where you get the average price at the end of the day then this is a non-issue.
Tip: You can get a second trade window if you upgrade to M1 plus click here for more information.
Tax Loss Harvesting
M1 Finance does not offer this feature as a stand-alone feature.
Here is an episode that we did talking about how this tax strategy works and an article on the topic.
But to summarize, if you have a stock or ETF that has gone down in value, you can sell those shares at a loss. You ‘realize' the loss. Depending on how much of a loss you've realized, you can claim up to a $3000 deduction in the current tax year, and you can rollover the remaining loss to future tax years.
The key when selling shares for tax-loss harvesting purposes is to avoid IRS wash sale rules. In short, you can't sell the shares claim the loss then rebuy the shares the next day. You have to wait at least 30 days before purchasing a substantially similar stock.
Investing solely for Tax-loss Harvesting is like letting the tax tail wag the dog. It would be nice if they carved out more space for tracking this, but it's not a must-have feature. Tax-loss Harvesting works with M1 Finance the old-fashioned way. A common-sense approach would be to use Tax-loss Harvesting to clean up your portfolio or get rid of companies that you don't want to own anymore.
If automated Tax Loss Harvesting is a critical feature for you to have, it's worth noting that Betterment built Tax-loss Harvesting into its platform- see our Betterment Review Article. But there are significant tradeoffs, including management fees.
M1 Finance does not offer a way to put in a rule-based sell. You can't set up a condition where you buy or sell if a stock goes below a specific share price. But that shouldn't come as a surprise; this is not for day traders. M1 Finance is a phenomenal platform for a long term buy and hold investors.
You can't access mutual funds, so you can't get VTSAX (Vanguard Total Stock Market Index Fund) on this platform. But no worries – you can buy into the ETF version of VTSAX, which has a ticker symbol of VTI. This beats investing directly with Vanguard for some people because Vanguards requires a $3,000 minimun to invest in VTSAX.
But one of the problems with the VTSAX is that you have to get a $3,000 minimum in order to buy into it.
While this may not be a problem for seasoned investors, for anyone who can’t come up with the $3,000 minimum to invest, M1 Finance is a perfect fit.
Like with most investing platforms, you will need a “helper” app like Personal Capital to see and track all your assets in one place.
Check out our video tutorial on how to invest with M1 Finance:
You can reach M1 Finance’s team via:
ETFs & Stocks
M1 offers ETFs and stocks through three major exchanges: NYSE, NASDAQ, and BATS. Sure, this sounds like every other trading site, but, thanks to the site’s innovative design, it’s not.
When you first invest, you start by making a “pie” where each investment you choose makes up a slice. You then set up the target weight of each slice. Or, you can choose from already made pies that professional investors have designed. Now all you have to do is add money to your account and M1 assigns the money to each investment based on your asset allocation. That’s it.
You can add, remove, or edit these “slices” whenever you’d like. You can keep track of your investments on M1's easy to use app. We have a video below that shows exactly how to sign up and get started with Paul Merriman's Ultimate Buy and Hold Strategy.
Part of M1’s mission is to offer commission-free investing. There are also no maintenance fees on your account, so every penny you put in is fully invested.
You do have to have at least $100 in your account to invest, but that's nothing compared to similar services that require thousands. M1 Finance does this by allowing you to buy fractional shares of ETFs, which is one of my favorite things about M1.
Other Investing Options
Along with ETF and stock options, you can open a retirement account. M1 Finance supports Traditional, Roth, and SEP IRAs.
You can also open a Trust, LLC, or Corporate investment account. You must have a minimum of $5,000 to open an LLC account.
Asset allocation and rebalancing is an important part of your investment strategy. M1 Finance automatically uses new contributions to the pie to buy assets that are underweighted in your pie.
For example, let's say you have a pie that is 50% stocks and 50% bonds. Your stocks have done well and the value of that section of your pie has gone up. Your allocation is now 60/40 due to this. When you contribute money, M1 Finance will automatically buy bonds with this new money to bring your pie back into a 50/50 balance.
It's like an autopilot making small course adjustments so that the plane stays on course and gets you to your final destination.
You can also rebalance manually at the click of the button if you wish.
Tax Loss And Capital Gains Harvesting
As with other investment platforms, you can optimize for tax-loss or capital gains harvesting, depending on your tax situation in any given year. In a year where your tax rate is low, you can harvest capital gains by selling the highest appreciated assets without a significant hit on capital gains tax.
Conversely, in a year where your taxes are going to be high, you can harvest a tax loss by selling assets with the biggest losses and using those to offset your taxes.
One of the coolest parts of M1 Finance is their “pie” style investing. A “pie” is M1 Finance's term for a portfolio. You can create a custom pie or choose from pies that have already been set up. As you invest, the new money coming into the portfolio is used to keep your pie in balance.
We recently had Paul Merriman on the show and he discussed his “Ultimate Buy And Hold Strategy.” His strategy is wonderful but a little complicated for the average investor who wants a “set it and forget it” type investment.
The good news is that Paul actually has created customized pies on M1 Finance that you can use! You can use M1 Finance to easily take advantage of Paul Merriman's investment strategy! M1 Finance even automatically rebalances your pies for you so it really is a hands-off investment.
Paul's recommended pies are:
- UB&H WW 100% Equity For Taxable (UB&H stands for Ultimate Buy And Hold)
- Merriman UB&H Bond Allocation (Taxable)
- UB&H WW 100% Eq. For Tax Deferred
- Merriman UB&H Bond Allocation (Tax Sheltered)
M1 customers can borrow against their portfolio if they need a loan. Instead of filling out a traditional loan application, customers can apply for a loan directly from their M1 account.
M1 claims they won’t deny anyone who’s already a customer. They also don’t check your credit, which can be useful if your credit has taken a dive and you need to borrow money quickly.
The interest rate is 3.5% for basic users and 2% for M1+ customers. This rate is variable and depends on the current Federal Reserve interest rate. The interest rate will go down for M1 customers if the Fed cuts rates and vice versa.
Currently, the rate is lower than average rates for credit cards, personal loans, and home equity lines of credit.
Investors can borrow up to 35% of their portfolio and use the money for debt consolidation, medical bills, wedding expenses, home down payments and more.
Borrowers need to have at least $10,000 in a margin account to be eligible. Funds in an investment account don’t qualify. Contact a customer service representative to see which one you have.
M1 offers an FDIC-insured checking account with two different tiers:
|ATM fees covered||Once per month||Four times per month|
Both tiers have no minimum balance, and both integrate with M1 investment accounts. The basic M1 account comes with every M1 account.
While the M1+ account includes a high-interest rate, it also comes with an annual fee of $125. There’s no way to avoid this fee.
M1+ may be worth the fee for some customers. Users need to have an average balance of $8,300 in their account or spend more than $1,029 a month to out-earn the $125 fee. M1+ account holders will also receive a slightly lower interest rate if they borrow money through M1.
A customer with an average balance of $15,000 who spends $1,000 a month using their M1 debit card will earn $225 in interest and $120 in cashback.
While this is a great offer, there are banks that offer 1% cashback on checking accounts without charging these high fees. You can replicate both the high interest rate and cashback options by pairing a 1% cashback checking account and a separate high-yield savings account.
So, if M1 Finance is free for investors, how do they make money? That's a good question. Brian shared with us that M1 Finance makes money through securities lending, payments for directed order flow, and cash management.
M1 Finance offers investors the option to get a variable rate loan at a low 3.5% rate for standard M1 users and 2% for M1+ users (as of April 2020) on up to 35% of assets in taxable accounts that are invested with them. This is a game-changer and is a huge improvement over a HELOC which typically offers a variable rate tied to the prime rate and isn't an option for renters.
Before creating an M1 Finance account, check out these other services to see what works best for you:
This robo advisor syncs with your bank, credit card and investment accounts to track your net worth, spending and investment goals.
Personal Capital breaks down investments into sectors such as US stocks, international stocks, US bonds, international bonds and alternatives. It can also analyze 401(k) fees to determine if you’re paying too much.
Like M1 Finance, Personal Capital has an FDIC-insured cash account that offers .05% APY with no minimum balance.
They charge .89% a year for investment management accounts under $1 million, which is a higher rate than M1 Finance. Customers need to have at least $100,000 in their accounts to qualify for professional help.
Betterment is a popular robo advisor for new investors. They offer traditional, Roth and SEP IRAs, charging .25% annually on their investment accounts.
One difference between M1 Finance and Betterment is that the latter offers one-on-one help to customers with balances of at least $100,000. They give unlimited access to CFP advisors for an annual fee of .4%.
Unlike M1 Finance, Betterment doesn’t let users borrow against their investment portfolio. Betterment automatically rebalances portfolios and provides tax-loss harvesting. People who have a large nest egg and want more guidance with their investments might be better off with a service like Betterment.
Wealthfront is a leading robo advisor offering retirement accounts such as traditional, Roth and SEP IRAs. They also allow investors to save for their children's education with a 529 account, which M1 does not support.
They offer tax-loss harvesting for all accounts with no minimum requirement. M1 Finance does not offer any tax-loss harvesting.
Wealthfront has a cash account with .26% APY. This money is insured by the FDIC, like a checking or savings account from a traditional bank. This is free to open, and there are no maintenance fees.
The account minimum for investing is $500, the same as M1, and the minimum for Wealthfront cash accounts is only $1. Wealthfront charges a .25% fee on all investment accounts.
Like M1, Wealthfront also lets eligible customers borrow money against their accounts, up to 30% of the total value. Interest rates on this line of credit range from 2.4% to 3.65%.
Robinhood is a commission-free trading platform for people who like to sell stocks regularly. Customers can buy stocks, ETFs, gold, options or cryptocurrency. Robinhood only offers brokerage accounts, not retirement accounts like IRAs.
There’s no minimum required to open an account. Robinhood doesn’t let customers borrow from their margin accounts, which M1 does. Active investors who prefer trading stocks regularly will benefit from Robinhood’s mobile app.
Robinhood currently has a waiting list for its cash account, which will offer .3% APY when it launches. It’s not yet clear when this program will launch or what other features it may have.
Acorns is a micro-investing robo advisor. The service invests the money it rounds up from your purchases. If you spend $2.68 at a coffee shop, it will round the purchase up to $3 and invest that 32 cents in your portfolio.
The app creates an IRA and sets up a portfolio based on your age and retirement timeline. Customers who sign up for Acorns can also set up automatic contributions from their bank account to put more money in their retirement accounts.
Acorns has three different tiers of service and charges $1, $2 or $3 a month depending on the option you choose.
Customers who have 401(k)s may benefit from Blooom, the only robo advisor that focuses on employer-sponsored retirement accounts. It’s not a competitor to M1; customers should consider opening both a Blooom and M1 account because M1 doesn’t support 401(k)s.
Blooom analyzes 401(k) fees, makes investment recommendations and rebalances portfolios. They sync to 401(k) accounts and determine what changes need to be made based on the consumer’s retirement timeline. It’s completely hands-off for customers who don’t have to make any changes themselves.
Blooom offers three tiers of pricing, $95, $120, or $250 annually depending on the level of service you desire.
It's important to know that you’re with a reputable company. M1 Finance is covered by SIPC insurance (Securities Investor Protection Corporation), which is a rock-solid insurance company that covers your investments in the event of misconduct or a firm’s insolvency. M1 Finance also uses Apex Clearing Corporation as their clearing firm/custodial bank. Having long been a leader in the industry, they are a highly reputable, custodial bank for your funds.
M1 Finance has the best mobile brokerage app I have ever seen – truly a world class investing app. It offers a nearly full suite of features on a tight intuitive platform. They truly have done an unbelievably fantastic job all the way around. For buy and hold investors with a medium to long term mindset, this is the greatest most revolutionary software of our time. I am confident M1 Finance will help you reach your investing goals.
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